American Foreign Policy

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Syllabus
Course Length:
15 weeks
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American Foreign Policy

POL 314

Fall 2005

George Washington famously recommended that the United States conduct its foreign policy as "our interest, guided by justice" directs. Such a remark has been descriptive as well as prescriptive. This course seeks to understand, and to evaluate, the United States' understanding and pursuit of interest and justice in its foreign policy. The approach is twofold. The first aspect is a historical survey of the major programs and decisions of American foreign policy from the American founding to the present. The second aspect is study of the reasons or principles that policymakers have offered to explain particular decisions and doctrines and to define the United States' disposition toward the world.

Texts

  • American Foreign Relations: A History, vol. 2 Since 1895 (Houghton Mifflin, 2005)
  • Various primary source documents through web server

Recommended Texts (on reserve in the library)

  • Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 by Walter McDougall (Mariner Books, 1998)

Graded Assignments

  • Mid-Term Examination (30% of course grade)
  • Final Examination (30% of course grade)
  • Paper (30% of course grade)
  • Class Participation (10% of course grade)
Note on Class Participation -- Preparation, Attendance, and Discussion

Like learning itself, this course demands your active participation. To participate, begin by preparing for class each day. To prepare for class, you must first read the class texts as assigned for each class, before that class meets. Our texts consist of a "textbook," which frames the political events and controversies we are surveying, and primary sources, by which you will confront directly those political events and controversies. To grasp these matters of justice and government--in historical detail and in principle--begin by reading our texts slowly, with great care, more than once, in a quiet setting free from distractions, and with a dictionary. To augment your comprehension, you should take notes as you read, highlighting and summarizing our texts' arguments and your thoughtful responses to them. Bring the assigned readings, and your notes, to class with you each day.

Participation requires attendance at all class sessions. Your regular presence in class is necessary not only for fruitful discussions, but also for your comprehension of ideas in the class. If you are compelled to be absent from a given class, it is your responsibility to contact the professor to collect any handouts or assignments you may have missed, and to contact a fellow student about class content you missed. No exams may be made up later.

Finally, there will be discussion in each class, between students and professor and among students. Voicing your thoughtful comments and questions will help not only you, but the whole class, learn.


TOPICS

  • Founding-Era Foreign Policy
  • Neutrality and Unilateralism
  • American System: The Monroe Doctrine
  • Continental Expansion
  • Imperialism?: McKinley and the Spanish-American War
  • Imperialism?: Theodore Roosevelt and the Monroe Doctrine
  • World War I and Wilsonian Internationalism
  • Prelude to World War II
  • World War II
  • Truman, Eisenhower, and the Beginning of the Cold War
  • Cold War: Vietnam
  • Cold War: D?tente
  • Cold War: Reagan and End of the Cold War
  • Post-Cold War Policy: Gulf War
  • Terrorism and the U.S. Response
  • Iraq, the War on Terror, and the Future of United States Security


SCHEDULE

WEEK ONE

Founding-Era Foreign Policy Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Declaration of Independence
  • United States Constitution, Articles I-VII
  • Pres. Washington, Farewell Address, 9/19/1796 [excerpt on foreign policy]


WEEK TWO

Neutrality and Unilateralism

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Treaty of Alliance with France, 2/6/1778
  • Pres. Washington, Neutrality Proclamation, 4/22/1793
  • Pres. Washington, Special Message to Congress, 12/5/1793
  • Neutrality Act, 6/5/1794
  • Pres. Adams, Special Message to Congress, 2/5/1798
  • Act to Protect Commerce and Coasts, 5/28/1798
  • Act for Defense of Vessels, 6/25/1798
  • Act Nullifying Prior Treaties with France, 7/7/1798
  • Act Further to Protect Commerce, 7/9/1798
  • Pres. Adams, Annual Message to Congress, 12/8/1798


WEEK THREE

Neutrality and Unilateralism

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Jefferson, Proclamation on British Armed Vessels, 7/2/1807
  • Sec. of State Madison, Statement on Chesapeake Impressments 7/6/1807
  • Pres. Madison, Request for Declaration of War with Great Britain, 6/1/1812 (w/Declaration, 6/18/1812)
  • Sen. German, Address on Hostilities with Great Britain, 6/13/1812
  • Treaty of Ghent, 2/16/1815
  • Pres. Madison, Message to Congress on Treaty of Ghent, 2/18/1815


American System: The Monroe Doctrine

Read: Chapter "Extending and Preserving the Sphere, 1815-1848" (pp. 98-103) Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Monroe, Annual Message to Congress, 12/2/1823
  • Pres. J.Q. Adams, Message to House on Latin America, 3/15/1826


WEEK FOUR

Continental Expansion

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Northwest Ordinance 7/13/1787
  • Pres. Jefferson, Letters on Louisiana to Sen. Breckinridge, 8/12/1803, to Sen. Nicholas, 9/7/1803
  • Sen. Breckinridge, Speech on Louisiana, 11/3/1803
  • Chapter "Extending and Preserving the Sphere, 1815-1848" (p. 91-92) [HANDOUT]
  • Indian Removal Act, 5/28/1830
  • Pres. Jackson, Annual Message to Congress, 12/6/1830
  • U.S. Supreme Court, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
  • Pres. Van Buren, Annual Message to Congress, 12/3/1838


Continental Expansion

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Polk. Inaugural Address, 3/4/1845
  • Declaration of War with Mexico, 5/13/1846
  • Pres. Polk, Message to Congress, 12/7/1847
  • Sen. Johnson, Speech on Territorial Acquisition from Mexican War, 2/28/1848
  • Sen. Webster, Speech on Mexican War and Its Territories, 3/23/1848


WEEK FIVE

Imperialism?: McKinley and the Spanish-American War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 1 Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. McKinley, Message to Congress on Spain and Cuba 4/11/1898
  • Congressional Resolution about Spain and Cuba, 4/20/1898
  • Pres. McKinley, Request for Declaration of War with Spain, 4/25/1898 (with Declaration 4/25/1898)
  • Treaty of Peace with Spain, 12/10/1898


Imperialism?: McKinley and the Spanish-American War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 2 (pp. 42-44) Primary Source Documents:

  • Sen. Hoar and Sen. Platt, Debate 1/9/1899
  • Pres. McKinley, Annual Message to Congress, 12/5/1899
  • Sen. Beveridge, Address on the Philippines, 1/9/1900
  • Platt Amendment, 2/25/1901
  • Sen. Morgan, Speech on Platt Amendment, 2/27/1901


WEEK SIX

Imperialism?: Theodore Roosevelt and the Monroe Doctrine

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 2 (pp. 34-41; 44-61) [Chapter 5 is supplemental reading] Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. T. Roosevelt, Speech at Chicago, 4/2/1903, Annual Message to Congress, 12/6/1904; Annual Message to Congress, 12/5/1905


World War I and Wilsonian Internationalism

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 3 Primary Source Documents: Pres. Wilson, "American Principles," 5/27/1916

  • Pres. Wilson, War Message to Congress, 4/2/1917 (w/Declaration of War, 4/4/1917)
  • Sen. LaFollette, Speech against War with Germany, 4/4/1917
  • Pres. Wilson, "What We Are Fighting For," 5/26/1917; Special Message to Congress, 1/8/1918


WEEK SEVEN

World War I and Wilsonian Internationalism

Read: Primary Source Documents: League of Nations Covenant (Treaty of Versailles), 6/28/1919

  • Sen. Lodge, Speech against the League, 8/12/1919
  • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Proposed Reservations to League Covenant, 11/19/1919
  • Sen. Borah, Address in Senate, 11/19/1919

Mid-Term Examination (Distributed 10/10; Due 10/15)


Prelude to World War II

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 4 Primary Source Documents:

  • Sen. Nye, Radio Address on Neutrality, 1/6/1936
  • Pres. F.D. Roosevelt, "Quarantining War," 10/5/1937
  • Pres. F.D. Roosevelt, Address to Congress, 1/4/1939
  • Sen. Taft, "Let U.S. Stay Out of War," 1/22/1939
  • Sen. Vandenburg, Speech on National Defense, 2/27/1939


WEEK EIGHT

World War II

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 6 Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. F.D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat on National Security, 12/29/1940
  • Lend-Lease Act, 3/11/1941
  • Pres. F.D. Roosevelt, Request for Declaration of War (w/Declaration of War), 12/8/1941, Address to Nation, 12/9/1941, Address to Congress on Yalta Conference, 3/1/1945
  • Pres. Truman, Statement of Policy on Post-War Japan, 9/22/1945


Truman, Eisenhower, and the Beginning of the Cold War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 7 Primary Source Documents: Pres. Truman, Address to Congress, 3/12/1947

  • Secretary of State Marshall, Commencement Address, 6/5/1947
  • Sec. of State Acheson, Address on North Atlantic Treaty, 3/18/1949
  • North Atlantic Treaty, 4/4/1949


WEEK NINE

Truman, Eisenhower, and the Beginning of the Cold War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 8 Primary Source Documents:

  • NSC-68 Policy Statement, 4/14/1950
  • Sen. Taft, Address in Senate on Korea, 6/28/1950
  • Pres. Truman, Address to Nation on Korea, 7/19/1950
  • Pres. Truman, Radio Address on Korea and Far East, 4/11/1951
  • Sen. Taft, Address on Korea and Gen. MacArthur, 4/13/1951


Truman, Eisenhower, and the Beginning of the Cold War

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Eisenhower, Inaugural Address, 1/20/1953, Letter to President of South Korea on Armistice, 6/7/1953, Excerpt from Press Conference, 4/7/1954, Special Message to Congress on Middle East, 1/5/1957, Farewell Address, 1/17/1961


WEEK TEN

Cold War: Vietnam

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 9 Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Johnson, Address to Congress on North Vietnam, 8/5/1964 (w/"Gulf of Tonkin" Resolution, 8/7/1964), Address at Johns Hopkins University, 4/7/1965, Address to Congress, 1/12/1966
  • Sen. Robert Kennedy, Address in Senate, 2/19/1966


WEEK ELEVEN

Cold War: Vietnam

Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Nixon, Address to Nation, 11/3/1969, Address to Nation on Cambodia, 4/31/1970
  • Sen. Mansfield, Address on Nixon Doctrine, 3/29/1971
  • Resolution of Congress on Termination of Vietnam War, 9/28/1971
  • Pres. Nixon, Address to Nation on Agreement to End War in Vietnam, 1/23/1973
  • War Powers Act, 11/7/1973
  • Pres. Nixon, Veto Message on War Powers Resolution, 10/24/1973


Cold War: D?tente

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 10, plus Chapter 11 (pp. 409-431) Primary Source Documents:

  • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, 5/26/1972
  • Pres. Nixon, "The Moscow Summit," 6/1/1972
  • Sec. of State Kissinger, "Moral Purposes and Policy Choices," 10/29/1973
  • Sen. Jackson, "SALT: An Analysis and a Proposal," 12/4/1973
  • Pres. Carter, "Soviet-American Relations," 6/15/1978


WEEK TWELVE

Cold War: Reagan and End of the Cold War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 10, plus Chapter 11 (pp. 431-454) Primary Source Documents: Pres. Reagan, Address to Parliament, 6/8/1982

  • Pres. Reagan, Address to Nation on Defense and National Security, 3/23/1983
  • Pres. Reagan, Address to Congress on Central America, 4/27/1983
  • Sen. Dodd, Democrats' Response to Reagan Address, 4/27/1983


Cold War: Reagan and End of the Cold War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 12 (pp. 467-471) Primary Source Documents: Pres. Reagan, Address to the Nation on the Situation in Nicaragua, 3/16/1986

  • Sen. Sasser, Democrats' Response to President's Address, 3/16/1986
  • Pres. Reagan, Speech on Reykjavik Summit, 10/13/1986
  • Pres. Bush, Commencement Address, 5/12/1990


WEEK THIRTEEN

Post-Cold War Policy: Gulf War

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 12 (pp. 491-496) Primary Source Documents:

  • Pres. Bush, Address to U.N. General Assembly, 10/1/1990
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, 11/29/1990
  • Pres. Bush, Letter to Congress, 1/8/1991
  • Debate in Congress on Resolution about Force, 1/10/1991
  • Persian Gulf Resolution, 1/12/1991
  • Pres. Bush, Address to Nation on End of War, 3/6/1991


WEEK FOURTEEN

Terrorism and the U.S. Response

Read: Primary Source Documents: Pres. Reagan, Address to Nation on Lebanon [Bombing of Marine barracks], 10/27/1983

  • News Report on Bombing of U.S. Barracks in Saudi Arabia, 6/26/1996
  • Pres. Clinton, Address to Nation, 6/29/1996
  • News Report on Bombing of U.S. Embassies, 8/8/1998
  • Pres. Clinton, Address to Nation on Air Strikes in Sudan, Afghanistan, 8/20/1998
  • News Report on Bombing of USS Cole, 10/12/2000
  • Pres. Clinton, Statement in Response to Bombing of USS Cole, 10/18/2000
  • Joint Resolution Authorizing the Use of Force, 9/14/2001
  • Pres. Bush, Address to Congress and Nation, 9/20/2001


Terrorism and the U.S. Response

Read: American Foreign Relations, Chapter 12 (pp. 462-467) Primary Source Documents: United Nations Security Council Resolutions 687, 688, 4/1991

  • Pres. Bush, Address at West Point, 6/1/2002
  • Pres. Bush, Address to United Nations on Iraq, 9/12/2002
  • Pres. Bush, Address to Nation on Iraq, 10/7/2002
  • Congressional Debate on Iraq 10/08/2002
  • Congressional Authorization of Force in Iraq, 10/11/2002
  • Pres. Bush, Addresses to Nation on Iraq, 3/17/2003, 3/19/2003


WEEK FIFTEEN

Iraq, the War on Terror, and the Future of United States Security

Read:

  • Pres. Bush, Annual Message to Congress, 2/2/2005
  • Sec. of State-Nominee Rice, Statement to Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 1/18/2005
  • Exchange between Sen. Alexander and Sec. of State-Nominee Rice, 1/18/2005


Read: Primary Source Documents:

  • Bush Administration, National Security Strategy of the United States, 9/2002

Final Examination